Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
When it comes to how much money an individual earns, there may be an optimal amount that will make you happy, according to new research. While money doesn’t 1 buy a fulfilling life, income is known to be associated with happiness, and having too little or indeed too much can affect emotional and psychological well-being in a 2 way.
“That might be surprising as what we see on TV and what advertisers tell us we need would indicate that there is no 3 when it comes to how much money is needed for happiness, 4 we now see there are some 5 ,” said Andrew T. Jebb, lead author of the study from Purdue University. It has been found that the ideal income 6 is $95,000 for life satisfaction and $60,000 to $75,000 for emotional well-being. Again, this amount is for individuals and would 7 be higher for families.
To arrive at their findings, the researchers studied data from the Gallup World Poll which asks participants about life satisfaction and well-being. Using this information, they created optimal earnings estimates for regions around the world, finding there was substantial
8 —perhaps because evaluations are influenced by the standards by which individuals
9 themselves with others. For example, the 10 amount of earnings for overall life satisfaction 11 to be higher in wealthier regions and lower in less 12 areas. The optimal amounts for simply 13 emotional well-being tended to be much lower across the board.
The study, which was published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour, suggests that 14 a certain threshold is reached, further increases in income are actually associated
15 reduced life satisfaction and 16 levels of well-being. The researchers speculate that while money was important for meeting basic 17 , purchasing conveniences and other useful things, after the optimal point, people may become fixated on
18 further material gains and engaging in social comparisons—which can
“These findings speak to a broader issue of money and happiness 20 cultures. Money is only a part of what really makes us happy, and we’re learning more about the limits of money,” Jebb concluded.
1. [A] necessarily [B] occasionally [C] statistically [D] economically
2. [A] moderate [B] influential [C] negative [D] inverse
3. [A] cover [B] ceiling [C] entrance [D] root
4. [A] since [B] or [C] so [D] but
5. [A] boundaries [B] lines [C] thresholds [D] approaches
6. [A] way [B] site [C] point [D] place
7. [A] likely [B] eventually [C] conversely [D] gradually
8. [A] complication [B] conservation [C] consideration [D] variation
9. [A] settle [B] combine [C] compare [D] associate
10. [A] protective [B] ideal [C] dangerous [D] troublesome
11. [A] failed [B] tended [C] expected [D] happened
12. [A] affluent [B] educated [C] prominent [D] commercial
13. [A] constituting [B] enhancing [C] achieving [D] addressing
14. [A] if [B] while [C] unless [D] once
15. [A] by [B] for [C] on [D] with
16. [A] lower [B] higher [C] certain [D] various
17. [A] standards [B] needs [C] rights [D] requirements
18. [A] anticipating [B] pursuing [C] spreading [D] saving
19. [A] decrease [B] promote [C] maintain [D] affect
20. [A] as [B] beyond [C] between [D] across